In the fall, there is a single generation of sexually reproducing males and females that produces diapausing eggs, which do not hatch until the following spring. Life Cycle Stages The life cycle of the pea aphid begins at spring and continues up to the moment when the insects start laying eggs for overwintering. The black cycle represents the ancestral life cycle of aphids, cyclical parthenogenesis (CP). Up to now, more than 20 hypotheses have been proposed to explain the prevalence of sexual reproduction in natural populations (Butlin, 2002; Hartfield & Keightley, 2012; Kondrashov, 1993). 0000006238 00000 n 0000005274 00000 n We also thank F. Serrano for drawing the figures. Dégâts, Heavy populations may develop when insecticides used to kill other alfalfa pests and with little to no activity against aphids kill the predators and parasites of this aphid. [R]Damage - Colonies cause crop losses. The gray cycle represents obligate parthenogenesis (OP). The genotype APG3, which was mainly restricted to central Chile (with the exception of a single individual found in the southern collection, apS), consistently produced males along with parthenogenetic females, but no sexual females in all the seven tested lineages (Table 4). We would like to thank L. Briones for her laboratory assistance, D. Sepulveda for her technical support, and both, M.J. Orellana and J.T. USDA Technical Bulletin 1287, 48 pp, Hutchison WD, Hogg DB (1984) Demographic statistics for the pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Wisconsin and a comparison with other populations. *F��C�$*����ؽ,u]��OH+\��������ń�3����mM#'0 As a consequence, it is common to see that in invasive ranges there is a remarkable prevalence of only one or few asexual genotypes in large areas and during several years, the so‐called superclones (Vorburger, Lancaster, & Sunnucks, 2003). Insulin-like peptides involved in photoperiodism in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. 0000002882 00000 n 60 0 obj <> endobj This research was funded by CONICYT fellowship No. Damage, Aphids were the first animals reported as photoperiodic as their life cycles are strongly determined by the photoperiod. Geographic patterns of sexuality/asexuality have been reported before (e.g., Burke & Bonduriansky, 2018; Frantz et al., 2006; Simon et al., 1999; Tilquin & Kokko, 2016). 0000001944 00000 n We assessed the reproductive mode of each subpopulation following two strategies: (a) by inducing sexual reproduction in individuals from laboratory parthenogenetic lineages; and (b) by inference from population genetic data. We then discuss several phenomena that are particularly accessible to study in the pea aphid: the developmental genetic basis of polyphenisms, aphid-bacterial symbioses, the genetics of adaptation and mechanisms of virus transmission. (a) Monthly Mean (black), Max. Consulter HYPPZ en ligne : Espèces (nom scientifique), Ravageurs (noms communs), Glossaire, Cultures. 0000012931 00000 n Population genetic software for teaching and research, GenAlEx 6.5: Genetic analysis in Excel. Internal hydrocarbon profiles in the pea aphids. �I��.����) Montero, for graphical support. However, it is unclear whether LpR is involved in the accumulation of cuticular hydrocarbons and its precise role in aphid reproduction remains unknown. 0000006957 00000 n Allelic and genotypic diversity in long‐term asexual populations of the pea aphid, Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data, Classification of hypotheses on the advantage of amphimixis. Sex in aphids is thought to be maintained because only sexually produced eggs can persist in cold climates, but whether sex is obligate or facultative depending on climatic conditions remains to be elucidated. Table S1. Our results showed a latitudinal trend in the reproductive mode of Chilean pea aphid population from obligate parthenogenesis in the north to an intermediate life cycle producing both parthenogenetic and sexual progeny in the southernmost locality, where harsh winters are usual. The Pacific Ocean and the Andes act as geographic barriers to natural events of introduction, making Chile a very isolated country. Buckets were maintained in a climatic chamber at 20°C (±0.5°C) and long photoperiod (LD = 16:8) to ensure sustained parthenogenetic reproduction. Images. On the other hand, it has been proposed that sex can be retained by lineage‐specific mechanisms such as beneficial traits that have evolved within species and became associated with sexual reproduction (Gouyon, 1999). 0000002490 00000 n Correspondence: Dun Wang and Tong‐Xian Liu, State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas and Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in Northwestern Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. In aphids, sex is thought to be maintained by environmental factors as only sexually reproducing aphids can produce diapausing eggs, the sole cold‐resistant form. In warm climates adult insects can continue feeding and parthenogenetic reproduction even in winter months. All these studies showed that asexual reproduction largely predominates in introduced aphid populations, as highlighted by low genotypic diversity and the occurrence of a few extremely frequent asexual clones that persist over years. Large numbers of aphids are present on lucerne from September, sexuales (apterous males and females) later appearing to produce winter eggs. In this study we used A. pisum aphids collected from alfalfa fields located in a latitudinal transect of about 4,000 km and covering various climates, to test for an ecological short‐term advantage of sex in cold environmental conditions. The APG1/2 complex, which dominates in northern Chile and represents a small fraction of individuals in Central Chile, was constantly found as strictly asexual (only parthenogenetic forms were produced in response to short‐day condition) in the three tested lineages. These aphids can reach maturity and begin reproduction 10–12 days after birth. What does the geography of parthenogenesis teach us about sex? Online Version of Record before inclusion in an issue. 0000004795 00000 n Therefore, the ApLpR gene of A. pisum may be a novel RNAi target relevant for insect pest management. 0000008156 00000 n (red), and Min. 1938. 0000005754 00000 n Population genetic software for teaching and research‐an update, Host range expansion of an introduced insect pest through multiple colonizations of specialized clones, GENEPOP (version 1.2): Population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism, Genepop'007: A complete reimplementation of the Genepop software for Windows and Linux, Genetic diversity and insecticide resistance during the growing season in the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on primary and secondary hosts: A farm‐scale study in Central Chile, Asexual reproduction of a few genotypes favored the invasion of the cereal aphid, Evolution without standing variation: Change in transgenerational plastic response under persistent predation pressure. As an example, in the study of Brévault, Carletto, Tribot, Vanlerberghe‐Masutti (2011) on the cotton aphid A. gossypii, they found that in the cotton‐producing regions of west and central Africa only one of the two overrepresented genotypes was prevalent (>90%) in spite of the equal or even high performance of the second clone (accounting for <10%) on plants not sprayed with insecticides. xref Despite these cases, aphids have the capacity to frequently lose the sexual phase (Hardy, Peterson, & von Dohlen, 2015), making the question about the maintenance of sex even more paradoxical. These develop into mature females in about seven to ten days. Then, this revertant would have fit with the environmental conditions that trigger and favor the CP phenotype (i.e., southern Chile). Several studies about the clonal diversity and population structuring of introduced pest aphid populations have been conducted in Chile, including the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Figueroa et al., 2005), the peach‐potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Rubiano‐Rodríguez et al., 2014), the bird cherry‐oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (Rubio‐Meléndez, Barrios‐San Martín, Piña‐Castro, Figueroa, & Ramírez, 2019), and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Peccoud et al., 2008), which represent some of the most invasive known aphid species. Aphid total genomic DNA was extracted following the salting‐out protocol using proteinase‐K digestion and precipitation by ethanol (Sunnucks & Hales, 1996). Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images. Illustration of the life cycle of Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids living on alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a ubiquitous perennial crop. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Involvement of apolipoprotein D in desiccation tolerance and adult fecundity of Acyrthosiphon pisum.
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