of its practical application in more countries. Pest Technology 4(7): 150-151 (Apr). The khapra beetle, a major stored-product and food pest in large swatches of Asia and Africa, has been listed as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. Notes on Trogoderma species (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) of Iraq. The area surrounding the structures was treated three times at 3-7 day intervals with a spray containing 5 lbs of malathion in each 100 gallons of diesel fuel. Approximately 10,800,000 cubic feet of warehouse space was fumigated out of an estimated 30 million cubic feet which was known to be infested. Khosla R, B Chhillar, R Kashyap (2005) Efficacy of insecticidal dusts on For imports from India into United States for 1982 through 1984, frequency in percent of interceptions of khapra beetle by commodity were Crating (26.2), Cargo not identified (18%), Celery seed (bagging) (9.0%), Gum (bagging) (8.2%), Gum (8.2%), Foodstuffs (bagging) (5.7%), Brassware (crating) (5.7%), Cumin seed (bagging) (4.1%), Rice (bagging) (2.5%), Niger seed (bagging) (1.6%), Cloth (bagging) (1.6%), Dill seed (1.6%), Coriander (bagging) (1.6%), Coffee (bagging) (0.8%), Lentil (bagging) (0.8%), Carpets (0.8%), Beans (bagging) (0.8%), Psyllium sd. Chaudhry M (1980) Aggregate post-harvest food grain losses in Pakistan. (Trogoderma granarium was found on 4 of 26 vegetable seeds in central west (3), central east (1) and northern (1) areas of India.). ), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Majority of interceptions were in gum, sheepskins and artware. For example, pupae in diapause of the fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis have a puparium coated with twice the amount of hydrocarbons than nondiapausing pupae. Overall, toxicity of acetonic extracts was about 1.3 fold greater compared with that of aqueous or ethanolic extracts throughout the range of concentrations tested (50-400 ppm). The results suggest a possibility for using leaf essential oil of the myrtle (M. communis) as an insecticide against Trogoderma granarium Everts in grain stores. 66. Search for other works by this author on: Morden Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Effect of high and low temperatures on the drugstore beetle (Coleoptera: Anobiidae). Sudan Notes and Records 32: 131-149. The stored conditions for these species are also discussed. Taylor, H. S. 1924. Voelkel, H. 1924. (Trogoderma granarium was found in grain and malt warehouses of brewery in Egypt. Whereas, larvae were the most tolerant with 94% and 100% mortality obtained after exposure of larvae to 562.5 µl/l air for 24 and 48h respectively. Ecology in malt stores. Immunological characterization of Trogoderma granarium, Liangshi Chucang (Grain Storage) 6: 44. Numbers of prey (host) attacked by predator females were greater than those attacked by predator males (P. Effects of ethanol extracts of Datura stramonium, Solanum nigrum, Quercus infectoria and Xanthium strumarium on the mortality, egg hatching, reduction in F1 progeny and repellents on the red flour beetle were investigated. Fourteen were farm and ranch properties and 16 were commercial type establishments. The validity of probit 9 measure has been criticized, because it is too stringent and it is difficult to accquire enough test individuals to estimate it (Robertson et al. n. and C. krombeini sp. The facultative diapause of Khapra beetle differs from quiescence in that it is controlled by multiple genes and selective breeding can produce strains without diapause or with obligate diapause (present in other dermestids) (Burges 1962b, Nair and Desai 1973). 21: 10-13. On country wide, basis, Irshad and Baloch  reported in Pakistan that storage losses, of wheat ranged between 3.5 to 25%. at 20°C and 70% R.H. , it is well documented that khapra beetle on the survival of. J. Econ. However, in T. variabile, nondiapausing larvae were found to be the most heat-tolerant life stage at 56°C followed by diapausing larvae (Wright 2002). Annals of Plant Protection Sciences 11: 207-211. chemotaxonomic implications of sesquiterpene lactones and syringin, from Rhaponticum pulchrum. Entomologie et Ph, sterilization for control of three stored grain beetles. 49: 559-566. Abstract:New insecticide treatment options would be beneﬁcial for control programs for Trogoderma granarium Everts, the khapra beetle, in the United States. Annals of to be phased out worldwide by 2015, according to Montreal Lefroy said that khapra beetle has been found in wheat in Sidney, Australia but no khapra beetle were found with a very thorough search of the stacks at White Bay and Enfield nor at other locations. Jian, F., B. Subramanyam, D. S. Jayas, and N. D. White. others, which had conventionally been used for many years in the Entomol. Miscellaneous Publications Entomological Society of America 73: 1-29. Increased CO2 concentration accelerates respiration of the Plagas (Espana) 19: 361-367. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner as an alternative to methyl bromide The potential economic impact of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) on the Western Australian wheat industry. Ali S, A Shaheen, M Asif, M Akhtar (2009) Steinernema qazii sp. An eradication program involving fumigation with methyl bromide at infested premises, and filling crevices of warehouses and silos with mortar was undertaken. Potential of Insects as Food and Feed in Assuring Food Security. However, it is still useful in protecting crops from infestations. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. Documentos 135. Entomol., 10th. were recorded 3.02, 9.41 and 2.06% in 7 months storage period, Estimated LT99 values for diapausing larvae were 288 h at 45°C, 6 h at 50°C, 1.1 h at 55°C, and 1 h at 60°C.  (Under what circumstances in the German Democratic Republic is damage by the khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Ev.) Berliner (Bacilli: Bacillaceae) [68,69] (Rhabditida: Beal RS (1954) Biology and taxonomy of the Nearctic species of, Lowe S, M Browne, S Boudjelas, M De Poorter (2000) 100 of the world’s. Agricultural Science, Moshtohor. Probit analysis without logarithmic transformation of the time of exposure was used to calculate the LT50 and LT95, LT99 (99% mortality), and probit 9 (99.9968% mortality) for each life stage or temperature. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. To eliminate colonies of Khapra beetle (in Russian). Honey, Sabyan F., Babar Bajwa, Muhammad S. Mazhar and Waqas Wakil. 54 pp. Zur Biologie und Beklmpfung des Khapraklfers, Trogoderma granarium Everts. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration, Epigenetics in Insects: Genome Regulation and the Generation of Phenotypic Diversity, Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-011118-111804. 1977. Pacific Entomol 30: 77-91. Tayoub G, A Abu Alnaser, I Ghanem (2012) Fumigant activity of leaf I. Insects never exposed to high temperature had 51% diapause termination, but insects exposed to 1 h of 50°C had <10% diapause termination and still high survival. mortality even under ‘unrealistic’ freezing temperatures (716°C) 1966. (Trogoderma granarium population in an imported 24 bag stack were monitored for 18 months to determine whether they might become established in southern Nigeria as a result of introduction on northern Nigerian groundnuts. Indian J Entomol 49: 21-26. organophosphates on hatching of beetle Trogoderma gr, against four major stored grain pests. Swaine, G. and Mutter, S. 1961. Radioisotopes such as electron beam accelerators and cobalt (Adults and mature larvae). n.) and Indian grain pest. Salmond, K. F. 1958. use of neem (Azadirachta indica) essential oil as a fumigant and Khidr, Sahand K., Waran Nooraldeen A. Agha, and Adil H. Amin. Kraszpulski, P. 1985. USSR, former Present, introduced . most effective fumigant against stored products pests is scheduled 2017. been emphasized in a recent review . Illustrated identification keys for Trogoderma granarium, T. glabrum, T. inclusum and T. variabile (Coleoptera Dermestidae) and other associated with stored products. Quarantine. but also because of the decreased insecticide persistence when 15: 86-92. USDA. Developmental There was a recent upsurge of infested celery seeds. Can general surveillance detect high priority pests in the Western Australian Grains Industry? Mitgliederversammlung zu Eisenach 28 bis 30, pp. Pest Control 29(10): 46, 50-52. SARE Working paper 1609, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia, Relationship between cold hardiness and diapause, Temperature sensitivity in insects and application in integrated pest management, New approaches for tackling the khapra beetle, Some biological and physical constraints to the use of heat and cold for disinfesting and preserving stored products, Proceedings of the international working conference on stored-product protection, 1986, The control of stored-product insects and mites with extreme temperatures, Alternatives to chemical control of stored-product insects in temperate regions, Proceedings of the international working conference on stored product protection, 2006, V.M.
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