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[170] (A single instance where esse is used instead of the expected fuisse (Caesar, B.G. Latin present passive indicative. "Caesar's Pre-Battle Speech at Pharsalus (B.C. I want you-all to buy a house. Past Contrary-to-Fact (Si + pluperfect subjunctive, pluperfect subjunctive) If I had left, I would have arrived on time. are followed by an ut-clause with the subjunctive. If an indirect statement describes an event or situation later than the introductory verb, the future infinitive is used. Would that the gods allowed me to be without a father! In poetry and old Latin utī or ut often introduces the optative subjunctive; and in poetry sī or ō sī with the subjunctive sometimes expresses a wish. Thus in the first of the sentences below, the future infinitive is used, but in the second, the simple infinitive: If the main verb of a reported statement is a reflection of a future perfect tense in direct speech, it cannot be expressed using an active verb, but it is possible to use a perfect or deponent perfect participle with fore:[160], Very rarely a future perfect of direct speech can be represented in indirect speech by fore ut followed by a perfect or pluperfect subjunctive:[164]. Nōllem accidisset tempus. Idiom practice; Lableling sentences... Diagraming sentences Exercise, Sentence Labeling 116, Sentence Labeling 122, Sentence Labeling 126, Sentence Labeling 150, Sentence Labeling 160, Sentence Labeling 194, Sentence Labeling 94, Sentence Labeling 30, Sentence Labeling 138, Future for 3rd -io and 4th Conj. [124], A present or imperfect subjunctive can also represent a deliberative subjunctive ('what are we to do?') [213] The direct speeches tend to be quite short, although there are some longer ones, such as Curio's speech to his troops before a battle. 9.13.2)I should like to have you believe(I should wish that you would persuade yourself). are known as verba dēclārandī, while those of learning, seeing, hearing, noticing, and knowing are known as verba sentiendī.[33]. Quod dī ōmen āverterint. They have to change the infinitive into the correct form of the present subjunctive according to the subject given. Because the future passive infinitive is made using the supine, the ending -um does not change with gender or number: The verb sum has its own future infinitive fore, equivalent to futūrum esse: Fore can be used in the periphrasis fore ut (occasionally futūrum esse ut or futūrum ut) followed by a present or imperfect subjunctive to report a future event. All latin tenses conjugation practice. [212], In Latin historians, ōrātiō oblīqua is very common. (Hor. (id. As the examples above illustrate, in a subordinate clause in ōrātiō oblīqua the future perfect tense usually becomes either the perfect subjunctive (redundārit) or pluperfect subjunctive (sustulisset, accēpissēs), according to whether the tense of the introductory verb is primary or historic. 442. Tenses in indirect speech in Latin are generally of two kinds: the subjunctive (used for indirect questions and commands, as well as most subordinate clauses) and the infinitive (used for indirect statements and rhetorical questions). The pronoun sē 'himself' is used to refer back to the speaker. Learn. Ne vīvam sī sciō. In some examples Caesar seems to use the present subjunctive to refer to a future time, and the imperfect to refer to the current situation, as in the following: Both Livy and Tacitus, on the other hand, tend to use a present or perfect subjunctive to represent a present or perfect indicative in direct speech. 3rd Declension: Liquid and Nasal Stems, m. / f. 3rd Declension: Liquid and Nasal Stem, N. 4th Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender, 5th Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender, 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives: ā- and o- stems, 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives: stems ending in -ro, 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives: Gen. in -īus, Dat. 441. Latin future active indicative . If now that golden branch would only show itself to us! 5.15)As true as I live, so may I live. [200] An example from Livy is the following, in which the perfect subjunctive āfuerit represents a perfect indicative āfuit, and imperfect subjunctive peteret represents an imperfect indicative petēbat in direct speech:[201].

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