Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds. The beetle (ladybird, ladybeetle) Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer), predating a citrus mealybug. Il résulta de l'établissement du parasite dans les 2 vergers de lâchers, le contrôle complet de la Pseudococcine en l'espace de 3 à 4 mois. 41 (8), 552-560. http://www.interciencia.org/v41_08/indexe.html. The natural enemies recorded for P. citri are numerous (Donald, 1956; Le Pelley, 1968; Niyazov, 1976; Barbier and Raimbault, 1985; Uygun et al., 1987; Mani and Krishnamoorthy, 1990c; Dufour, 1991; Reyd et al., 1991; Islam and Jahan, 1993; Su & Li, 1993; Vos et al., 1993; Blumberg et al., 1995; García et al., 2016; Noyes, 2016). Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Pr., California; London, G. Cumberlege, Oxford Univ. The Macmillan Company, New York, USA. Ann. In Turkmenistan, pomegranates are most liable to heavy infestation. Vos M, Alphen J J M van, Kole M, 1993. Sper. Alternatively, plants may be subjected to vapour heat treatment as described by Hansen et al. Arai (1996) concluded that the higher developmental threshold temperature must be around 30°C. Congr. 135. Pseudococcids (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae) within the context of integrated control in citrus groves round the Mediterranean. Gomez-Clemente, In Alexandria (Egypt), application of emulsion sprays containing 3% petroleum distillate and various emulsifiers, all locally produced, gave good control on guavas for up to 5 weeks after treatment in September (El-Sebae and El-Akkawi, 1971). Abstract In the Loukos area in the north of Morocco, Planococcus citri is a major pest of citrus orchards. Biological control of Ecology and economic importance of the insects of Turkmenia. First instar female and male nymphs are called crawlers. Due to the difficulty of separating P. citri from P. minor, some of the following details may be referable to P. minor (Maskell). On coffee in Kenya, P. citri is controlled indirectly by spraying chemicals or applying baits against attendant ants, to encourage natural enemies that would otherwise be killed by them (Le Pelley, 1968). Spatial dynamics of citrus mealybug Planococcus citri Risso at medium high altitudes of Meghalaya. Palestras Studies on natural enemies of cocoa mealybugs. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control [Proceedings of the 2nd Arab Conference of Applied Biological Pest Control, Cairo, Egypt, 7-10 April 2008. geral de luta biologica.  The male constructs a cottony cocoon for pupation, and the female does not. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 13(4):319-329; 24 ref, Su TsongHong, Su ChungKuang, Su TH, Su CK, Vacante V, 1997. Veg. Patol. —Calif. Estac. In Switzerland, Vogel et al. Bull. Biological and In California, banding the trees with sticky tree-tangle foot or baiting for ants is recommended to protect citrus plants from argentine ants that interfere with the activity of natural enemies (Davidson and Pearis 1956). Ann. Insect Environment 2: 90. 35 (3), 197-204. Experimental Agriculture, 11(3)193-199, Bigger M, 1976. Speare AT. It has been recognized as a difficult-to-control pest in Europe since 1813 (where it is called the greenhouse mealybug) and in the United States since 1879 (Anonymous 2007). Quillis Perez (1935) in Spain also found that its development is retarded at high humidity.AssociationsP. London, UK; British Museum (Natural History), 431 pp, Williams DJ, 2004. 1954, Beingolea 1957, Simmonds 1957, Wille 1958, Bennett & Hughes 1959, 39 p. Flanders, S. Tech. Cleaning farm equipment and other objects used in the field can help prevent its transport. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, No. Y. He also reports eight coccinnelid predators from Java, Australia, India, New Guinea and Uganda. 6 fasc. 1999). Tubular ducts without rims, slightly larger than the larger ducts on venter, often adjacent to some cerarii. Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 25(1):89-98; 29 ref, Silva EB, Mexia A, Vacante V, 1997. Proc. Série de Zoologia. In the tropics, it occurs mainly on the aerial parts of crops such as cocoa, bananas, tobacco and coffee and on wild trees such as Ceiba pentandra and Leucaena (Strickland, 1951a,b; Le Pelley, 1968; Entwistle, 1972). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 43, Cabitza F, Cubeddu M, Maurichi S, Ballore S, Pala M, Lovicu G, 1994. Effectiveness of the exotic encyrtid parasitoid, Leptomastix dactylopii How. Scale insects and mealybugs on coffee, tea and cardamom and their natural enemies. 1996. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici, 37:167-170, Rotundo G, Tremblay E, 1980. Ann. and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds. Rivnay, E. Planococcus citri was first described as Dorthesia citri by Risso in 1913 from specimens on Citrus in southern France. Risso). Ashkhabad USSR, 117-124, Noyes J, 2016. These three insecticides were also found to be effective in Turkey.  This leads to plant damage in the form of wilting and chlorosis of the foliage, leaf drop, stunted growth, and sometimes the death of the plant. (Rhy., Cocc.) Ants from multiple genera are involved, including species of Crematogaster, Pheidole, Camponotus and Wasmanniaauropunctata, with different species active in different countries and conditions, on various crops (Way and Khoo, 1991). Smith, H. S. & Armitage, H. M. — 1931. South AFrica 6: 131-36. The use of Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) to control Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Queensland citrus orchards. In: Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 102 249-251. The Coccidae (Homoptera) naturalised in South Australia: an annotated list. Veg. Its host plants in Australia include pumpkins in New South Wales; Clerodendrum, Coleus, Croton and Erythrina species in hothouses, and Ceratonia, Siliqua and Veronica species in the open in Adelaide (Brooks, 1957); and pineapples (Carter, 1942), Vitis vinifera and passionfruits in Queensland (Williams, 1973; Murray, 1978b). In: Journal of the Agricultural University of the Virgin Islands, 28 (3/4) 114-172. 182 p. Joubert, C. J. In newly infected vines, the virus remained latent or undetectable by ELISA for at least 13 months.Silva and Mexia (1999) observed a significant positive correlation between Cryptoblabes gnidiella and P. citri on sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) groves in the Algarve, Portugal, supporting the hypothesis of several authors that an infestation of P. citri is necessary for C. gnidiella attack in citrus. Calif. Agric. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 72(3):441-455, Williams DJ, 1985. The occurrence of Pestalotia rot of bagged guava fruits and screening of fungicides for its control in Taiwan. against Planococcus spp. Pest Management in Agric. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. 2: 817-22. : Pseudococcidae). In: British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 25 15-49. F. S. & M. Guttfeld. Thus, contact chemical cues perceived by females when probing the wax filaments with their mouthparts were the signals inducing the search for oviposition sites. Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society, 32:67-70, French JV, Reeve RJ, 1979. Establishment of Leptomastix dactylopii How. 1960. 797. Boletin del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 3:139-145, Panis A, 1979. Serum-diagnostic discrimination in the Pseudococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Ghana, 1995-96:166-169, Ackonor JB, 2000. 10th Intern. (Clausen 1956). [Sur lnetat actuel des connaissances concernant certains arthropods nuisibles aux agrumes en Sicile.] Marchal, Establishment of Leptomastix dactylopii (How.) (Pseudococcus citri yPericerya purchasi). In unfavourable conditions, attendant ants sometimes pick up mealybugs and carry them to new feeding sites (Way and Khoo, 1991; Anon., 2016). Krambias, A. Keeping fruit trees pruned so that they do not touch each other may help slow spread of P. citri, and cleaning farm equipment and other objects immediately after use in the field can help prevent its transport between trees and orchards. 2001), while male nymphs are more elongated. P. citri also transmits bacilliform particles of a virus disease on edible aroids, including Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium in the Solomon Islands and the South Pacific (Carpenter et al., 1976; Gollifer et al., 1977). Properties of viruses and virus diseases. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. on stored yam tubers (Morse et al., 2000). Department of Agriculture Kenya Bulletin, 18:18, James HC, 1937. The adult female citrus mealybug is about 3 mm (0.12 in) long with a white, brownish, or pink body covered in white wax. The body of adult females is coated with white wax and bears a characteristic faint gray stripe along their dorsal side. Bol. Bermuda Dept. Colony dispersion and nesting habits of the ants, Dolichoderus thoracicus and Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in relation to their success as biological control agents on cocoa.
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