causes of decline of indus valley civilization upsc

[8], These notes will help you for both SSC CGL Tier I and Tier II, UPSC, Banking, IBPS and other competitive exams. [16], The findings have been significant enough for the report to say that studying the Indus civilisation might help us understand what it takes for cities to survive dire climate change. The decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harpoon Civilization, was caused by both environmental and cultural factors. The main towns of Indus valley civilization were Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Kalibangan, Lothal. No.1 and 5 are compulsory and out of remaining, 3 are to be attempted choosing atleast 1 question from each section. Disappearance of seals, the script, distinctive beads and pottery. A marked feature of this ancient civilization was the vivid imagination and artistic sensibilities exuded by the numerous sculptures, seals, potteries. It has also yielded two interesting stone sculptures not available at any other Indus site. CSE 2014 has more no. [8], It was the first Indus site to be discovered and excavated in 1921 by Daya Ram Sahni. [16] [14] [14] [5] [7] The main idea behind this website is to amalgamate the study materials with basic notes that are theoretically as well as practically feasible for the aspirants. The discovery of the Persian Gulf Sal and the Reserved Slip Ware suggests that Lothal was engaged in maritime activities of the Indus civilization. It lacked systematic drainage system, a noteworthy feature of the Indus civilisation. [14], Note: Answer any three questions including Question 1 which is compulsory. A new study titled ‘Neoglacial climate anomalies and the Harappan metamorphosis’, conducted by an international team of scientists suggests that climate change may have led to the decline of the Indus Valley Civilisation.. "Though Alexander failed to plant his Greek civilization in India, nor could his invasion produce any direct consequences of permanent nature yet his invasion cannot be called a "non-event’ in the Indian history." Shani. [10] After the decline of Indus Civilization, a new civilization grew which was dominated by the Aryans and came to be known as the Vedic Civilization. [24] The seafloor near the mouth of the Indus is a very low-oxygen environment, so whatever grows and dies in the water is very well preserved in the sediment. The available evidence suggests that the Harappan culture had its origin in the Indus valley. The relics of the Indus civilization were first discovered and excavated in 1921 by D.R. Compared to the Indus civilization, the early Vedic period civilization was "male dominated". The Indus towns possessed no general system of urban fortification, which was often massive, as at Kalibangan,but the gateways were simple entry-points to the towns. Among them are: Indus Valley was probably the largest prehistoric urban civilisation. Click here for Online Inquiry form to join Drishti IAS programmes. [9] [16] Afterwards, the culture began to decline. [24] [5] [26] Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus. [9] The study provides a powerful lesson for today as the migration out of Syria and African countries has some roots in climate change. [8] [7] [15] Note: Footnotes & Links provided to all original resources. State briefly the extent and striking features of the earlier civilization, if any. From Harappa 891, seals had been discovered which Froming 29.7 percent of the total writing material of the Indus civilization. Compare the economic, social and religious life of the Indus Valley (Harappan) people with that of the early Vedic people and discuss the relative chronology of the Indus and the early Vedic cultures. [7] Based on these broad classifications, let us look at two major civilizations of India Indus Valley Civilization / The Harappan Civilization and Vedic Civilization. [10], The Harappan cultivated wheat and barley the two main food crops. That is why, Khushboo has discussed Indus Valley Civilization in very detailed manner. 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The Indus or Harappan culture arose in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent. [6], The culture of Northern Baluchistan is termed as 'Zhob' culture after the sites in the Zhob valley, the chief among them being Rana Ghundai. [22] The people of Indus Valley Civilisation were excellent traders owing to their networks with rural agrarian communities, mining areas and places which were rich in resources. [11] The eclipse of sea- trade might have contributed to the decline of the Harappan civilization but it cannot be held as the main cause. Indus civilization was the largest cultural zone of the period the area covered by it (about 1.3 million [25] [14] [25] [12] [5] Bones of horse and Oval grave were found at the Banawali site of Indus Valley Civilisation. [17] Amarna letter, written in Akkadian cuneiform, of essay town civilization planning on writing harappan short from the royal archives of Pharaoh Amenhotep III … DESTINATION EARTH. [2] [8] Situated at a distance of 56.32 km from the shore of the Arabian sea and some 500km to the west of Karachi, on the bank of Dasht River near the border with Iran, Suktagedor was an important centre of the Indus civilization discovered by Sir Aurel Stein in 1931. Reciprocal evidence comes from the Indus cities also-discovery of a circular button seals which belongs to a class of Persian Gulf seals, several bun-shaped copper ingots of Mesopotamian origin and the 'Reserved Slip Ware' of the Mesopotamian type at Lothal. The people of Indus Civilization were vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian. While Mohenjodaro and Harappa are rightly regarded as principal cities of Indus Valley Civilization, there were several others, such as Rakhigarhi in Haryana and Ganweriwala in Pakistan's Punjab province, that match them both in size and importance. List of Archaeological Sites of Indus Valley Civilisation, Different Opinions about the Decline of Harappan Civilisation, Deforestation, scarcity of resources, ecological imbalances. Question no. [25] The Indus civilization was spread across the Indus valley (river Sindhu). Answer Because the first relic of this civilization was received in Harappa. [16] This section also accounts for 90-100 marks in Main General Studies paper too. [10] [14] About two dozen Indus type seals were also discovered from different cities of Mesopotamia like, Ur, Susa, Lagash, Kish and Tell Asmar. [9] This is a very important topic from which, questions are asked in the GK, GS and GA part of competitive exams. The Indus Valley Civilization site where houses are built just next to the wall is Desalpur. Indus Civilization had mastered the art of using metals, mud, wood, glass for making ornaments, architecture and various forms. The massive floods in the Indus must have been a potent cause for the extinction of the Harappan culture. Parts of the same question must be answered together and must not be interposed between answers to other questions. [10] [10] [8] Candidates should attempt Question no. [6] [5] 3 greek history. Hi friends, Please use this link to download the pdf which consists of 10000 Gk questions and answers.

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